AWS Welding Journal Nov (2024)

Related Papers

Welding Journal-August 2011

2011 •

Jožef Medved

Welding is an important process and has a very important part in industry, especially in the automotive, maritime, and energy sectors. Although welding has many advantages, it also has some disadvantages such as thermal expansion and shrinkage or microstructural transformations, which cause stresses. All these processes have a main influence on the distortion during and after welding. With knowing all these properties and welding parameters, it’s possible to predict the final distortion. Accurate prediction of the distortion is important when distortion on some unique, large parts has to be predicted. To achieve the deformation in the desirable limits, changes in welding parameters can be made, such as welding sequence and clamping of the welded parts. When changing some welding parameters of complex parts, with a large number of beads or multipass welding, etc., it’s not easy to predict the distortion after welding (Refs. 1, 2). When the welding procedure is planned, it’s now possi...

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Welding Journal-September 2011

2011 •

Sergio D . Brandi

Cryogenics can be defined as the science and technology of temperatures below –153°C (120 K). This limiting temperature was proposed based upon the boiling point of the main atmosphere gases, as well as methane, which are below this temperature (Ref. 1). According to Lebrun (Ref. 2), cryogenics arose two centuries ago from the search to liquefy the atmospheric gases considered until that time incondensable. In 1877, L. Cailletet and R. Pictet liquefied air for the first time, and in 1883, K. Olszewski and S. Wroblewski separated oxygen from nitrogen. However, the increase in cryogenics applications started in 1908, when H. Kamrelingh Onnes made the first helium liquefaction. There is also equipment in the chemical and petrochemical industries that work in temperatures as low as –100°C, which is not exactly a cryogenic application according to the definition presented above. In both cases (cryogenics or low-temperature applications), the 300 stainless steels series is widely used, an...

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AWS 2.4

Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS Not for Resale No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

1998 •

Bharath Kumar

This standard establishes a method of specifying certain welding, brazing, and nondestructive examination information by means of symbols. Detailed information and examples are provided for the construction and interpretation of these symbols. This system provides a means of specifying welding or brazing operations and nondestructive examination, as well as the examination method, frequency, and extent.

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Welding Journal-January 2012

2012 •

Dusko Radakovic

An evaluation of the cross-tension test behavior of resistance spot welds in high-strength dual-phase steels was performed with two objectives. The first objective was to examine the variables that affect the load-carrying capacity of spot welds in 780 and 980 MPa dualphase steels. This was accomplished through cross-tension testing of the steels, and finite element modeling (FEM) of the weld crosstension test behavior. The second objective was to determine whether the cross-tension test represents the type of loading and deformation modes that spot welds undergo in a real vehicle crash event. This was done through a detailed examination of a crash-tested vehicle made available for examination by the Auto/Steel Partnership of the American Iron and Steel Institute. The observed weld failure modes and base material deformation in the crash-tested vehicle were compared to those in the cross-tension test. The modeling indicated that the failure load in the cross-tension test is related ...

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Welding in The World

Welding in the World—update 2021

2021 •

Americo Scotti

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Barbaros Gülşah


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Prepared by the American Welding Society (AWS) B5C Subcommittee on Qualification of Welding Engineers Under the Direction of the AWS Personnel and Facility Qualification Committee

sajan james

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Welding Journal-April 2012

2012 •


The residual δ-ferrite that remains at room temperature once a stainless steel has been welded, that is, after it has experienced the process of melting followed by solidification, will determine the material’s properties and behavior during its service lifetime. It is well known that primary ferritic solidification avoids the hot cracking phenomenon in austenitic stainless steels, but the determination of the solidification mode requires a metallographic analysis, which is a destructive test. Therefore, in practical terms, a minimum δ-ferrite content of 3–4 FN (Ferrite Number) is considered an acceptable indicator to ensure the absence of hot cracking during solidification. However, for specific applications or service conditions, it is necessary to impose a maximum δ-ferrite content; for example, for hightemperature conditions or thermal cycles (350°–900°C) when δ-ferrite can suffer from spinodal decomposition or be transformed into (σ) sigma-phase, causing embrittlement and a dec...

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Welding [Working Title]

2020 •

Sadek Crisostomo Absi Alfaro

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Field Welding Procedures - 4th Edition

Samir Rabia

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AWS Welding Journal Nov (2024)
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